Handlers Of The Present. Four steps to destroy economies and seize the natural resources that for millennia belonged to the people

Handlers Of The Present. Four steps to destroy economies and seize the natural resources that for millennia belonged to the people

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

By Gonzalo Palomino Ortiz

The new conceptualization of the term "globalization" no longer refers to economic processes, nor to the role of large multinational corporations, but rather works with the notion of political sovereignty of National States and gives a new treatment to the concept of "society" .

Globalization is a new version of colonialism ... and it can no longer do without a common code of ethics. John Paul II.


"In a distant kingdom, a magnificent and cruel sovereign, clinging to the attributes of his power, locked in his sumptuous palace, apparently had not seen that the world was imperceptibly changing around him. One day, to his amazement, he began to perceive that his orders were nothing more than simple noises and did not translate into acts. Apparently his power had shifted and the magnificent sovereign had ceased to be the master of the world "

Ramonet thinks that those who, in the great democracies, wage endless electoral struggles to conquer power, ... don't they risk, in the event of victory, experiencing a disappointment similar to that of the sovereign in this fable? Don't you know that power has, and is moving?

Those fighters will be forced to back down, deny their opinions, and acknowledge that true power lies elsewhere, out of reach. The heads of state or government, neither the senators nor the ministers, are influential people in the world. Now the important ones are the Bill Gates.

These changes are especially due to the information and communication revolution, which built the two true columns of modern society: financial markets and information networks.

The information networks, little by little, have changed the order of the world from top to bottom. And especially the world of finance ... giving rise to a new cult, a new religion: that of the market.

Now data is exchanged instantly, day and night, from one end of the Earth to the other. The main Exchanges are linked to each other and work without interruption. Simultaneously, throughout the world, in front of their electronic screens, thousands of highly-educated, gifted young people spend their days hanging from the telephone. They are the experts of the new dominant ideology: single thought. An ideology that is always right and before which any argument - even more so if it is of a social or humanitarian nature - has to bow.

In today's democracies, more and more free citizens feel mired, trapped by this viscous doctrine that, imperceptibly, envelops all rebellious reasoning, inhibits it, paralyzes it, and ends up drowning it. There is only one doctrine, that of single thought, authorized by an invisible and omnipresent globalization police.

"The world today is hotter, more urban, economically richer and environmentally poorer than ever" - Julen Rekondo -

The Spanish Post-The Basque People, in Vital Signs No.15, Madrid.

II.- Approaches to globalization

Globalization is a system with its own logic, it is not a phenomenon, it is not a passing trend, it constitutes the very extensive international system that shapes the dominant policies and foreign relations of all countries.

The new conceptualization of the term "globalization" no longer refers to economic processes, nor to the role of large multinational corporations, but rather works with the notion of political sovereignty of National States and gives a new treatment to the concept of "society" , understanding it as the sphere of private fulfillment and as a sphere of individual freedom, in contrast to the State, which would be the sphere of coercion.

Some theorists handle "the essence of the economics of globalization" in the concept that innovation replaces tradition, the present (or perhaps the future) replaces the past. This makes the system a splendid place for innovation, it also makes it a difficult place to live, as most people prefer some kind of future security to a life lived in constant uncertainty…. That perhaps pushes us, forces us to abandon our relationship with those who are closest to us in a daily task.

If globalization were a sport, it would be the 100-meter race, run over and over again; no matter how many times you win. If it is lost for only a hundredth of a second, it is the same as if it is lost for an hour.

The new updating coincides with two processes: on the one hand, the need to create a basis of political legitimacy for the recently created World Trade Organization, WTO, in which the established agreements become binding agreements over the regulations of each country. . Hence the insistence on the need for democracy; and on the other hand,… the intention of the large transnational corporations to assume an explicitly recognized political weight in relation to the Nation States.

III.- An X-ray of globalization

Globalization in its evolution, slow or fast, has generated a theoretical labyrinth, a lot of ignorance about its political and economic mechanisms, very few serious approaches, little popular information, abundant forcefulness in the impacts ... and therefore the planetary population, very Olympic, They do not know which party to take: for or against. Therefore, a deep X-ray about their balances is urgent, necessary:

First: It is the traditional balance between nations: in the system of globalization, the United States is now the only dominant power, and all other nations are subordinate to the United States, to a greater or lesser degree. And the balance of power between the United States and all other nations matters even for the stability of the system.

Very recently, on Tuesday August 21, 2001, the World Bank granted Argentina new loans for a value of US $ 8,000 million, through a promise from the government, - the golden straitjacket - to make deep cuts in budget expenditures of the large government bureaucracy. Argentina's budget debt is US $ 130,000 million. And to obtain the loan, the President promised to reduce state bureaucracies and reform the cash transfer system between the central government and the provinces: any similarity with what is imposed on the Colombian government and popularly protested, is not a coincidence, it is the same golden straitjacket .

The traditional balance between the superpower and the other nations fell to President George Bush, who told De la Rúa by phone that the United States was pleased with the IMF package and that he was committed to helping Argentina end its financial crises. .

The second equilibrium in the globalization system is between nations and global markets. These global markets are made up of millions of investors moving money around the world with the click of a mouse. These investors are called "the electronic herd" and they gather in key financial centers around the globe, such as Wall Street, Hong Kong, London and Frankfurt, places that are called supermarkets. The actions of the electronic herd and supermarkets can have a huge impact on nations, even to the point of bringing down governments. Today we cannot understand the events if we do not include supermarkets in our analysis.

The United States can destroy us by dropping bombs, and supermarkets can do it by lowering the value of our securities. The United States is the dominant player that maintains the globalization board, but it is not the only one that influences the movements on the board, which is more similar to the Ouija board: sometimes the game pieces are moved by the visible hand of the superpower, others by the hidden hands of supermarkets.

The Mexican Cemex SA, the third largest in sales and production of cement in the world, is planning an ambitious series of investments in Asia in anticipation of the eventual economic recovery of that region.

According to Lorenzo Zambrano, president of Cemex, "We expect to have US $ 2.5 billion for acquisitions next year, and Asia is our focus. We are interested in countries such as Thailand, India, Indonesia and China."

Cemex reported revenues of US $ 5.6 billion last year and produces about 80 million metric tons of cement per year in 33 countries. It generally buys cement plants at bargain prices after crises, as it did in the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand, in places with low production costs and strong growth potential.

The third equilibrium, the newest of all, and corresponds to the equilibrium between individuals and nations. Because globalization has broken down many of the walls that limited the movement and expansion of people, and has connected the world through networks, it empowers individuals to influence markets and nations.

Shepherd caravans in the mountains of Laos and Burma use mobile phones to find the best way to markets during the rainy season.

The world's population reached 6 billion people on October 12, 1999.

So we already have not just a superpower, not just supermarkets, but we have super-powerful individuals.

Some of these super-powerful individuals are very angry, others are wonderful, but all of them today are trained to act directly on the world stage without the traditional mediation of governments, corporations, or other public or private institutions.

Osama bin Laden, an unknown Saudi millionaire with his own global network, declared war on the United States in the late 1990s, and the United States Air Force had to launch a missile attack on him, as if it were of a nation.

Jody William won the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to the international ban on landmines. He did it without much help from governments, and in the face of opposition from the five great superpowers. Her secret weapon to organize a thousand human rights groups was El Correo Electrónico, which makes her a "super-powerful individual."

IV.- Globalism, globality and globalization

Ulrich Beck, in his book "What is Globalization?" makes an academic recreation about the semantics of the term, which we transcribe:

By globalism, Beck understands, the conception according to which the world market displaces or replaces political activity; that is, the ideology of world market dominance or the ideology of liberalism.

This proceeds in a monocausal and economistic manner and reduces the multidimensionality of globalization to a single dimension, the economic one, a dimension that it also considers in a linear way, and puts all the other dimensions on the table: ecological, cultural, political and social globalization; just to highlight the presumed dominance of the world market system.

Globalism claims that a building as complex as Germany - that is, the state, society, culture, foreign policy - should be treated as a company. In this sense, it is an economic imperialism under which companies demand the basic conditions with which to optimize their objectives.

For Beck, globality means living in a world society. There is no country or group that can live apart from others. That is to say, that the different economic, cultural and political forms do not stop intermingling. ASCII, world society means the totality of social relations that are not integrated into the policy of the national state or determined through it.

For its part, globalization means the processes by virtue of which sovereign nation states intermingle and intermingle through transnational actors and their respective power probabilities, orientations, identities and various frameworks.

But ... what is new in all this?

From the historical, empirical and theoretical point of view, the new goes beyond everyday life and commercial transactions, new is the self-perception of transnationality in the media, in consumption, in tourism, etc .; new is the translocation of community, work and capital; New are also the awareness of the global ecological danger and the corresponding activity scenarios; new is the incoercible perception of transcultural others in one's own life, with all its contradictory certainties; new the level of circulation of global cultural industries; New is also the gradual opening up of a European state image, as well as the number and power of transnational actors, institutions and agreements, and, finally, new is also the level of economic concentration, which despite everything, is counteracted by the new competition of a world market that knows no borders.

Finally, Beck concludes, globalization also means: absence of a world state; more specifically: world society without world state and without world government.

We are witnessing the spread of a globally disorganized capitalism, where there is no hegemonic power or any international regime, either economic or political.

V.- Tittyainment

The pragmatists and theorists who meet in Seattle periodically narrow down the future of today's democracies to a couple of numbers and a concept: "20 to 80" and tittytainment. The numbers refer to the fact that in the future, 20% of the workforce will be enough to keep the world economy going: "No more workforce will be needed," says one of the magnates.

This fifth part will be enough to produce all the goods and provide valuable services that world society can afford. That 20% will participate, therefore, actively in life, profit and consumption, no matter in which country.

"Undoubtedly, 80% will have big problems, says the American writer Jeremy Rifkin, author of the book" The End of Work. "A Sun executive summarizes: In the future, the question will be to have lunch or be lunch, eat or be eaten.

The expression tittytaiment was invented by a Polish veteran, who was for four years President Jimmy Carrer's national security adviser; and now he is dedicated to geostrategy. He defines it as a combination of entertainment and tits. Tits, breasts in American slang, conceived not so much as sex but as the milk that flows from a nursing mother. He thinks it can be translated as a mixture of stunning entertainment and sufficient food… we want to see it as "circus and bread".

The model of the world of the future, with its formula 20 to 80, is outlined with 80% of the excluded who will have to be calmed down with Circus and bread.

VI.- The golden bra

Globalization is a procedure for the powerful to take advantage of the weak. Procedure that has at its disposal innovative technologies such as computers, communications, the new neoliberal economy, the interpretation of cultures.

And it has invented, and continues to design, mechanisms that make it impersonal, without identity. Mechanisms so powerful, like the many-headed dragon… invisible heads.

The International Monetary Fund

Institution created, together with the World Bank, its sister organization, at the Bretton Woods conference in the United States, after the end of World War II. Its purpose was to promote international monetary cooperation and trade expansion, to facilitate currency convertibility and to ensure financial stability. The IMF is an international body with 140 members. In theory, power is in the hands of 21 CEOs, but in fact it is wielded by the five members with the highest quota: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Japan and, in particular, the USA, whose quota is the largest.

Fundamentally, the IMF is the one that makes the loans, in the last instance, to the governments of the Third World that are suffering balance of payments difficulties, and that are in debt with private international banks. A debtor government can demand up to the limit of the rights of its special checking account, in exchange for its own currency. If this is not enough, it can ask for an additional quota, but then it has to accept the "conditions" imposed by the IMF as part of the broad spectrum of its "adjustment program" carried out in conjunction with the World Bank.

The more the debtor country asks for, above its quota, the more stringent conditions are and are more vigorously enforced. If a country borrows twice its quota, and still needs money, the IMF will take effective control of its economy and, indeed, of its social policy. Since IMF approval is critical to receiving loans from other sources, its power is considerable.

The conditions imposed on the debtor countries have various forms. To begin with, the debtor government is made to reduce its expenditures, particularly "non-productive" expenditures on social welfare, education, health, and food subsidies. This has led to many hardships, particularly in the slums of the Third World, where thousands of people (many of them environmental refugees because of development programs) depend on food subsidies to survive. Not surprisingly, such a policy has led to food riots in Peru, Turkey, Egypt, and elsewhere. The debtor country is also forced to cut real wages, obviously causing more hardship.

A third feature of IMF-imposed policy is its insistence on expanding crops for export, at the expense of crops that produce food for local consumption.

With this, human misery has worsened, particularly in those countries where there was already severe malnutrition and famine. However, the IMF has not relaxed when imposing this condition. When, for example, Sudan cut cotton production to feed its starving population, the IMF insisted that it abandon that policy, or it would not give more loans.

To increase exports as much as possible and, by the same criteria, limit imports, the debtor country is frequently asked to devalue its currency. And this, while the IMF allows the debtor country to maintain the reduction in spending on imports to solve its balance of payments problems. The IMF strictly prohibits the setting of import quotas or other restrictions on the importation of manufactured goods from the industrialized world, even when uncontrolled spending on superfluous products is most often the main cause of the debtor country's plight.

Not surprisingly, critics of the IMF have accused it of prioritizing for the short-term economic interests of the industrialized world, against the debtor nations of the Third World, and to the detriment of the health of millions of human beings and the environment.

The IMF, whose headquarters are on the 13th floor of the inaccessible reinforced concrete building on G Street, northwest of the North American capital, is one of the most discussed and, nevertheless, apparently most essential institutions in the world. Whenever governments seek help from foreign banks and finance ministers, since they can no longer pay their debts or overcome economic crises without international support, they are referred to the world financial power, which with 3,000 workers, serves petitioners from all over the world .

In negotiations that sometimes last for years, the petitioners always pledge to adopt draconian savings programs and radically reduce their state bureaucracy, they pledge to get on their knees. After consultations with the donors, who are the same to whom the debt must be paid ... finally, the debt is ordered and disbursed.

Hand in hand with the IMF, operates its sister organization, the World Bank, which from Washington, is responsible for long-term investments.

world Bank

Established in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference with the assistance of 44 nations, the World Bank is now by far the largest and most influential of the multilateral development banks. Not only does it invest about $ 16 billion a year in the Third World; Likewise, the projects that it approves or partially finances have few difficulties in obtaining supplementary financing from other development banks, and from bilateral aid institutions.

The World Bank operates hand in hand with its sister organization, the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Where the Bank is responsible for long-term investments, the role of the IMF is to provide the financing to serve as a bridge to countries with short-term balance of payments difficulties.

The World Bank is made up of three main bodies: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which collects money in international financial markets and lends with commercial interest rates; the International Development Agency (AID), which provides concessionary loans to the poorest countries and obtains funding from IBRD member subscriptions, donations and contributions; and the International Finance Corporation, which lends money to the private sector with government guarantees.

The Bank is controlled by the member countries, whose votes match the volume of their respective donations. This means that, to a large extent, control rests with the US, as it is the largest donor. The World Bank is headquartered in Washington and its director is invariably a US citizen.

The Bank's policies reflect Western foreign policy, and in particular that of the United States, vis-à-vis the Third World, which should not be surprising at all since its objective is to ensure the uninterrupted growth of the Western and industrial economy.

The Bank is firmly committed to free trade and its policy contributes to promoting the sale to the Third World of goods manufactured in the industrialized world. Third World countries, for their part, are encouraged to export their agricultural production and the raw materials that the West needs.

Since the Bank is a commercial organization and requires its loans to be repaid, it only lends money to those projects that are likely to be profitable. A special department of the Bank, the Operations Evaluation Department, advises on the economic viability of the proposed projects.

So far social and environmental considerations have been almost entirely ignored, despite continuous claims to the contrary. In 1984 the Bank confessed, in an internal memorandum, that "environmental issues are routinely not taken into account." It has also admitted that "it does not have the capacity to carry out sectoral work on environmental issues, as usual." For now, the Bank's Office of Environmental Affairs has only five officers to assess the impact on the environment of more than 300 new projects each year. Of the 6,000 bank employees, there is only one professional specialized in Ecology.

Bank-financed projects that have had adverse impacts on the environment and local people include many large dams and other hydraulic development projects; road construction programs, especially in forested areas; and many livestock projects.

In recent years three Bank projects have been severely criticized; the Polonoroeste project, in Brazil, the Narmada Valley project, in India; and the Transmigration project in Indonesia.

In 1986 the Bank's actions regarding the environment were harshly criticized by the Appropriations Subcommittee of the US Senate, chaired by Senator Kasten of Wisconsin. Kasten said that if the truth were known about projects financed by the World Bank and other multilateral development banks, citizens would "take to the streets to ask why their money was being used in such destruction." The committee chaired by Kasten refused US support for the Polonoroeste project.

The Bank received another blow when Hugh Foster, its alternate US CEO, voted against financing a number of hydroelectric projects in Brazil, calling them "absolutely foolish and disastrous for the environment."

Currently the Bank has promised to change its conduct. Its development committee issued, in April 1987, a report entitled Environment, Growth and Development, in which it sets the new guidelines for its actions with respect to the environment. Future projects will have to meet three criteria: "economic growth, poverty alleviation and environmental protection."

In 1987, the Bank launched an initiative to "integrate women in development." This initiative focuses on "increasing the productivity of women by investing in human capital and increasing women's access to productive sources and the labor market." On the one hand, the Bank could be condemned for finally recognizing, albeit late, the important role that women play in all economies. On the other hand, the incorporation of women into international markets will surely be more beneficial for the Bank and its clients than for the women themselves. Working for large-scale businesses and selling through entrepreneurs often results in a loss of control over what is produced, for whom and at what price.

It is clear, however, that the World Bank has a long way to go before environmental protection rhetoric is turned into action. Despite the devastation they bring, the Bank continues to finance such blatant projects as Transmigration, in Indonesia, and Narmada, in India. Moreover, although it has withdrawn its support for several projects, it has only done so after protests from environmentalists and defenders of indigenous peoples were heard.

Whether the objectives set in the new guidelines are compatible or not is up for discussion. In particular, it is difficult to see how the aim of economic growth is compatible with the protection of the environment.

GATT: General Agreements on Customs and Trade Tariffs

The GATT was the incubator of the World Trade Organization. It was born from the Agreements signed in 1947 to promote free trade, remove obstacles to trade and lower customs tariffs. Later, it is institutionalized as an organization destined to ensure world economic liberation. Currently it has been replaced, in all its philosophy and functions, by the World Trade Organization.

The GATT was born to govern trade. It came into force at the end of the 1947s. Its purpose was to establish a list of standards and procedures that countries must follow in their international trade relations. It was especially intended to lower barriers to trade, make countries refrain from imposing tariffs and quotas on imports, or subsidies on exports, and generally mobilize the conditions of free trade between nations around the world.

World Trade Organization

The WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO), which became famous, but not popular, as a result of the failure of its summit meeting, which took place in Seattle (United States) between 30 November and December 3, 1999. Wherever the repressions of all the peoples of the world emerged, in the form of discontent with the current functioning of the world economy.

Discontent with a system of international relations that enriches some countries and impoverishes others, discontent with distributive forms, which both in the North and in the South, privilege only certain population groups, discontent with a foreseeable homogenization culture under the Anglo-Saxon baton, discontent with the unlimited power of transnational companies, and discontent with the current position of militarism as the gendarme of the established order.

Most of the discontent, represented at the WTO meeting in Seattle, were due to both its organizational structure and its possible work agendas. And if we add to this its global character, it will not be difficult for it to have been chosen as the thankless symbol of globalization.

The FTAA, Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas

That it is something like the shameless arm of contemporary economic power, obeys the global tendency to press without showing our face and this time the tight ones are Latin Americans and the pincers are in the hands of the multinationals.

Since 1994, governments and businessmen have been secretly promoting the creation of the largest commercial bloc in the world, the Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas (FTAA). The bloc includes 34 countries, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. Operación que tendrá un enorme impacto en las vidas de los 800 millones de personas que vivimos en este continente. Sin embargo, los pueblos de América, que luchan por una integración, nunca tuvieron noticias de su existencia.

ALCA es una versión ampliada del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (NAFTA) y como tal, transfiere a las transnacionales el poder de dictar a los Estados la estandarización de reglas y de políticas macro económicas. El ALCA significa en la práctica muchas cosas que son pecado: como la depredación ambiental, al imponer los derechos privados de las empresas multinacionales por encima de las Constituciones Nacionales; como la liberalización de los mercados que conduce a la desintegración de las economías nacionales, las sociedades y las culturas; como el desconocimiento de la soberanía de los pueblos y la pretensión de certificar, desde la óptica imperial, la legitimidad de un gobierno.

VII.- Resistencias planetarias contra la OMC

Se llama Resistencia, con mayúscula, a aquello que se opone a la acción de una fuerza, con tanta entereza que permite sufrir olímpicamente el cansancio, el hambre y hasta la muerte… puede ser resistencia contra un ataque, resistencia pasiva o resistencia desesperada. Es la concepción heredada de las organizaciones que combatieron al invasor alemán en la Segunda Guerra mundial.

La Asamblea General de Oilwatch, que es una red de organizaciones no gubernamentales y de comunidades de base que luchan contra las consecuencias ecológicas de la búsqueda y producción de petróleo y gas, ha definido la Resistencia como la "la capacidad o posibilidad de decir NO, y de aplicar ese NO en la práctica".

Y sin lugar a dudas las nuevas economías son las fuerzas que amenazan al 80% de la población mundial, a los sectores más pobres del mundo. Por ello brotan todos los días estrategias de Resistencia en muchas comunidades, pueblos, juntas, gremios… que pretenden sobrevivir al auge de la globalización.

Ejemplos de Resistencias efectivas:

Un día del 99, un grupo de criadores de ovejas franceses interrumpió la construcción de un restaurante de Mcdonald’s, desmontándolo ladrillo a ladrillo, como expresión de Resistencia por las represalias americanas contra su único medio de vida: el queso roquefort.

En Chile, en este momento, hay una enorme lucha del pueblo Mapuche en contra del modelo de monocultivo de pinos.

En Ecuador la Resistencia es contra la compañía japonesa Bishimetals, subsidiaria de Mitsubishi, que pretende una explotación minera que talará los bosques y contaminará el río.

Los amigos de la Tierra de Escocia defienden la justicia ambiental con la consigna "No menos que un ambiente decente y no más que una parte justa de los recursos de la Tierra para todos y cada uno".

En Alemania la lucha es contra la energía nuclear, ya que existen 19 plantas nucleares en operación.

En Brasil el movimiento de los Sin Tierra impulsan una reforma agraria y cambios estructurales en la sociedad brasileña.

En el Tolima se impulsa el café orgánico en fincas en donde se persigue el incremento de la biodiversidad cultivada, el rescate de las especies nativas que producen comida, en donde se utilizan productos naturales, se evitan los endeudamientos económicos, y se ofrece Resistencia para impedir que el acoso económico obligue al campesino a perder su dignidad, su tierrita y a su familia.

Y la nueva modalidad adoptada por muchas comunidades de oponerse a la violencia, con presencia, asambleas permanentes, marchas de antorchas, himnos y cantos, diálogos, tolerancia y comprensión… para impedir mas muertes ciudadanas.

VIII.- Redes de resistenciaLas Redes son una exaltación a la amistad la cual genera identidad y perspectiva común.

La globalización vuelve dependientes a las comunidades mediante el peso del peso y el peso del dólar. Por ello las familias organizadas en RED nunca deben recibir prestamos, que exijan intereses y pagos en dineros.

Todas la familias deben tener como meta producir todo lo que se comen: un campesino de Palocabildo, Colombia, se jacta al afirmar que él sólo compra la sal y las baterías… que todo lo que se come con su familia lo produce en su finquita.

Los miembros de la Red tienen presente, en sus reflexiones diarias, que la producción es prioritariamente para el consumo de su familia, no para el mercado.

Deben hacer esfuerzos por rescatar aquellas tradiciones que enriquecen la solidaridad de la comunidad, como son la minga, la mano prestada, el intercambio de productos, el trueque, el préstamo, intercambiar o prestar semillas, y todas aquellas enseñanzas de nuestros abuelos… que por fortuna no dependían del dólar…

Creemos firmemente que podemos convertir a la agricultura y ganadería, en formas de resistencia ecológica, en donde se utilicen los recursos de la finca y no se gaste el dinero ni se adquieran deudas comprando productos químicos, concentrados, fertilizantes químicos, etc.

La economía de la globalización ha cogido tanta fuerza, que algunos la denominan la nueva religión, por cuanto a logrado lo que antes, ninguna religión había podido, tener de rodillas, a todos los Estados, las razas, los pueblos… a todos los habitantes de la Tierra. Y todo ello lo ha logrado en unos pocos años… mejor dicho, en doce años creció y se consolido tanto, que su capacidad de destrucción está fuera de control.

No pretendemos derrotar la globalización, pero si podemos mamarle gallo y el mejor camino es la solidaridad en RED, las Resistencias, creer en la gente y rescatar la fe en la comunidad.

IX.- Desde Seattle

Earnest y Rosenau, elaboraron un ensayo en el cual sacan a James Bond, del período anterior a la globalización: la Guerra Fría; y lo convierten en un personaje envuelto en situaciones que hoy identificamos como globalización: en unas películas aparecen individuos superpotentes, en otras son rebaños electrónicos o carteles que se mueven aprovechando la incapacidad de los Estados para cooperar y mantener el control de los flujos tecnológicos, financieros, comerciales y migratorios transnacionales.

Encuentran similitudes entre la ficción de James Bond y la actualidad globalizada, como aquel financista que intenta acaparar oro para generar inestabilidad en el mercado internacional y arruinar la economía industrial; o resaltando la similitud de la reunión de la OMC en Seattle con la actividad del agente secreto y unas corporaciones multinacionales que pretenden monopolizar los mercados y utilizar el conflicto para generar demanda de sus productos.

Los autores del ensayo, irónicamente, sacan un mensaje muy claro y profético: los Estados son mas capaces de defender a los ciudadanos de la violencia que proviene de los otros Estados que de la violencia y la explotación ocasionada por corporaciones o grupos al margen de la ley.

Frente a la ronda del milenio

Pero toda la ciencia ficción acumulada en muchos años aflora en noviembre de 1999 en Seattle, Estados Unidos. Resulta que la OMC, en la búsqueda afanosa de un mercado globalizado, abierto y sin fronteras, con autonomía para pisotear al medio ambiente y al ser humano; convocó a una cumbre denominada la "ronda del milenio" y logró, según Alejandro Santos Rubiano, de la Revista Semana, "revivir el bello canto y encanto del marxismo en el epicentro del capitalismo, en las fértiles tierras del Tío Sam… con su crítica frontal al capitalismo".

El bello canto… fue una protesta espectacular. Mas de 50 países y unos 50.000 activistas pertenecientes a sindicatos, estudiantes, defensores de derechos humanos, ambientalistas, trabajadores de industria del acero, militantes pro-libertad del Tíbet, defensores de animales… bloquearon las vías de acceso al Centro de Convenciones para impedir que los ministros de 135 países se reunieran a consolidar un orden económico mundial basado en la liberalización total del comercio.

El objetivo de los representantes de la economía global consistía en desconocer y someter a las leyes del mercado los acuerdos multilaterales sobre el medio ambiente, en particular el Convenio de Biodiversidad Biológica y el Protocolo de Bioseguridad sobre Organismos Genéticamente Modificados.

La OMC intenta erigirse en una entidad mundial que por encima de todo acuerdo y consenso internacional, antepone los intereses económicos a todo derecho ciudadano. Esto es lo que ha quedado desenmascarado en Seattle.

Y así sucesivamente, en donde se reúnen los amos del mundo, los emperadores de los imperios, llámense G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8, o sus obedientes enviados especiales, se dan las protestas pacificas, aunque a veces se salen de las manos, … y la cuenta crece: Seattle… Washington… Davos… Londres… Praga… Niza… Gotemburgo… Génova teñida de sangre… Qatar… Québec… Río… Nueva York… Porto Alegre…

…y se repite la historia, por cuanto todas esas custodiadas reuniones, persiguen los mismos objetivos.

El gran capital transnacional pretende aprobar acuerdos para sentar las bases de un nuevo orden económico en el cual el papel de los gobiernos ha de reducirse a crear condiciones mas favorables para mejorar la "competitividad" de las empresas, es decir… rebajar las exigencias de protección laboral, sanitaria y medioambiental, y financiar con fondos públicos la Investigación + Desarrollo y la infraestructuras de transporte necesarias para la expansión comercial, y mantener el orden en unas sociedades en las que crecientes tensiones y marginación social se hacen insoportables. Y el gran objetivo para con las gentes, es que entre menos sepamos el contenido real de los acuerdos, y del significado de la jerga económica utilizada… MEJOR

En el último evento de Resistencia, el Foro Social Mundial, realizado en Porto Alegre Brasil entre el 31 de Enero y 4 de Febrero de este año, Y bajo la consigna de que OTRO MUNDO ES POSIBLE, se aprobó concluir el documento oficial con una frase muy linda, que define la convicción de los asistentes y recoge el pensamiento de muchos ciudadanos del planeta.

La OMC, el FMI Y el Banco Mundial se reunirán en alguna parte y en algún momento dado! Allí estaremos


* BECK, Ulrich.- 1998.- .- ¿Qué es la Globalización?: falacias del globalismo respuestas a la globalización. Paidós. Barcelona. pp. 224.

* BERMEJO, Isabel. 2.000.- DESPUÉS DE SEATTLE: COMO SE HIZO FRACASAR A LA OMC Y A SUS PLANES. EN: Boletín de la Asociación Viuda Sana No. 1. p 7-8

* DÁVALOS, Pablo. 2001.- LA GLOBALIZACIÓN: génesis de un discurso. Vía Alterna. (Tomado del servicio informativo "ALAI-amlatina")

* DRUCKERMAN, Paula.- 2001.- EL TIEMPO. Tras el rescate del FMI, se intensifica la batalla por reducir costos en Argentina. Pág. Económica. 1-12 Agosto 24. Bogotá.
* EARNEST, David C. & James N. ROSENAU.- 2000.- EL ESPIA QUE AMABA LA GLOBALIZACION. Rev. Cambio. 11 de Septiembre 2000. Bogota. p.76-77

* GOLDSMITH, Edward & HILDYARD Nicholas .- 1.992.- Informe Tierra: Guía de la A a la Z sobre temas medioambientales. ParthSnon. España. 198.

* MARTIN, Hans Peter & SCHUMANN Harald .- 1.998.- La Trampa de la Globalización: el ataque contra la democracia y el bienestar. Taurus. 319.

* PALOMINO ORTIZ, Gonzalo.- 2001.- RESISTENCIAS AMBIENTALES A LA GLOBALIZACIÓN. Periódico: EL NUEVO DIA.- Pág. Ecológica. Martes 6 de Noviembre. Ibagué – Colombia.

* PALOMINO ORTIZ, Gonzalo.- 2000. ABRIR MERCADOS MUNDIALES Y LEVANTAR BARRERAS. Periódico: EL NUEVO DIA Pág. Martes 21 de Diciembre. Ibagué – Colombia.

* PALOMINO ORTIZ, Gonzalo.- 2.000.- OTRO MUNDO ES POSIBLE. Periódico EL NUEVO DIA. Pagina Ecológica .- Martes 5 de Marzo.- Ibagué. Colombia.
* PANDEY UMESH.- 2001. El TIEMPO. CEMEX COMPRA EN ASIA. Pagina económica. Agosto 23 . Bogotá.

* Por Gonzalo Palomino Ortiz [email protected]
Departamento De Biología Universidad Del Tolima. Ibagué Abril 2002

Video: The Lost Ancient Humans of Antarctica (July 2022).


  1. Birtel

    On our site you can create your personal horoscope for a specific day or a month in advance. We can say with precision which professions are suitable for you, and in what you will succeed and career growth.

  2. Peverell

    I beg your pardon, this variant does not suit me.

  3. Ivar

    This theme is simply incomparable :), I like it)))

  4. Omari

    This topic is simply incomparable :), it is very interesting to me)))

  5. Gonzalo

    I apologize for interfering ... I am familiar with this situation. You can discuss. Write here or in PM.

  6. Allard

    Earlier I thought differently, I thank for the information.

  7. Adolph

    Sorry, but this doesn't suit me.

  8. Maldue

    I'm sorry, I can't help you with anything. But I am sure that you will find the right solution. Do not despair.

Write a message